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CONTRACEPTION AND SEXUAL HEALTH REVIEW

Contraception methods are measures used to prevent pregnancy. There are many different types of contraception methods including:

  • long-acting reversible contraception
  • hormonal contraception
  • barrier methods
  • emergency contraception
  • fertility awareness
  • permanent contraception

Long-acting reversible contraception is the most effective type of long term barrier and includes:

Intra uterine device (IUD): small, T-shaped item that goes inside the uterus (Copper IUD, Hormonal IUD).

Implant: The implant is inserted in the arm and slowly releases a hormone called progestogen. They act by stopping the body from releasing an egg each month and thicken the mucus in the cervix so sperm cannot reach an egg.

Hormonal Contraceptives use hormones to prevent pregnancy and include:

Combined oral contraceptive pills

Progestogen only contraceptive pills

injections

Barrier methods prevent the sperm from entering the vagina and reaching the egg for fertilization. They prevent unexpected pregnancy and transmission of sexually transmitted diseases. The two barrier methods are:

  • Condoms
  • Internal condoms

Emergency Contraception is used when there was an occurrence of unplanned sexual intercourse and there are two options for emergency contraception:

  • Emergency contraceptive pills
  • Copper IUD

The ECP is approved to be taken up three days after unprotected sex. This method of prevention is found to be effective in women of an average weight. Copper IUD is recommended for women who weigh more than 70 kg and has to be inserted up to five days after unprotected sex. Emergency contraception methods can be used when:

  • barrier methods was not used
  • Barrier contraception method fails (condom splits)
  • Missed more than one contraceptive pill
  • Vomiting or had diarrhea while on the pill
  • Missed the contraception injection
  • Sex without contraception.

Fertility awareness is about attaining the knowledge on the signs of fertility in the menstrual cycle. Understanding the menstrual cycle helps to plan and avoid a pregnancy. a normal menstrual cycle follows a gap of 28 days. Ovulation or the release of an egg happens around the 12-18th day of the previous menstrual cycle. Understanding the day of an ovulation helps to plan and avoid pregnancy accordingly. A mature egg is viable for 24 hours in the fallopian tube. If the sperms are not able to reach the egg, fertilization do not happen.

Permanent contraception also known as sterilization is a permanent method of making an individual infertile and prevents all future pregnancies. Permanent contraception can be done for both males and female. In males the process is known as vasectomy and for females, it is known as tubal ligation. 

  • Vasectomy: Sperm is prodcued in the testicles and travel up the tubes and mix with the semen. During a vasectomy, these tubes are cut and tied and prevents the entry of sperms into the semen. The sperms in the testicles are absorbed by the body.
  • Tubal ligation: during the tubal ligation, both the fallopian tubes are closed by closing the pathway for the sperms to enter the tube.

At Jacob hospital, we offer the contraception techniques and sexual health review from well qualified and experienced specialists. To know more about contraception method that is suitable for you, book an appointment now.

 

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