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Fractures

Bone Fracture Treatment

Fracture is a simple word that is used to signify a broken bone that occurs usually from a blow or an accident.

Bone Fracture Treatment Kochi

Types of Bone Factures

Fracture classifications depend on different factors like:

  • Mechanism
    • Traumatic Fracture: caused by a fall, accident or a fight
    • Pathological Fracture: bone weakening caused by diseases like Osteoporosis etc.
    • Periprosthetic Fracture: End of the prosthetic/implant weakens.
    • Stress Fracture: repeated stress and strains cause this, especially in athletes.
  • Soft-Tissue Involvement
    • Closed Fracture: overlying skin is intact.
    • Open Fracture: bone is exposed, leading to contamination with high risk of Infection.
  • Fracture Pattern
    The fractures can be of different types depending on patterns like:
    • Linear Fracture: parallel to the bone’s length.
    • Transverse Fracture: perpendicular to the bone’s length.
    • Oblique Fracture: diagonal to the bone’s length.
    • Spiral Fracture: part of bone is twisted.
    • Compression/Wedge Fracture: collapse of vertebrae in the spine due to osteoporosis.
    • Impacted Fracture: caused when bone fragments are driven to each other.
    • Avulsion Fracture: caused by pulling of muscle or a ligament on a bone.

Fragments
The types of fracture in this type include:

  • Partial Fracture: bone fragments are partially joined together, e.g., hairline fractures.
  • Complete Fracture: bone fragments are separated completely.
  • Comminuted Fracture: bone has broken into many fragments.

Anatomical location
The fracture’s location in the human body is another source for classification:

  • Skull Fracture: can occur in the skull’s base, the eye socket region, jaws or nose.
  • Spinal Fracture: occurs in the different cervical vertebrae of the spine.
  • Rib Fracture: occurs in one or more of the rib bones.
  • Sternal Fracture: occurs in the sternum.
  • Shoulder Fracture: can occur as Clavicle (collarbone) Fracture or Scapular (shoulder-blade) Fracture
  • Arm Fracture: can occur in the following regions of the arm:
    • Upper Arm Fracture or humerus
    • Forearm Fracture, which can be either Ulnar fracture, Radius Fracture or both.
  • Hand Fracture: usually in the scaphoid bone, one of the carpal bones.
  • Pelvic Fracture: occurs in the pelvis that includes the hipbone, sacrum and coccyx.
  • Femoral Fracture: occurs in the femur bone usually confused with the hipbone.
  • Patella Fracture: is found in the knee especially after a hard blow to the knee’s front.
  • Crus Fracture: occurs in the lower leg bones either in the Tibia or Fibula or both.
  • Foot Fracture: can occur in the different metatarsals or foot bones.

Causes of Bone Fractures

The common factors that cause fractures are:

  • A bad fall or a vehicle accident is the most common cause.
  • Aging causes weakening of bones and prone to falls.
  • Ailments like Osteoporosis, infections or a tumour etc., weaken the bones, making them brittle and prone to breakage.
  • Repetitive actions tire the muscles and stresses more pressure on the bones, leading to Stress Fractures.
  • Bad habits like smoking leads to lower bone density, increasing the risk.

Bone Fracture Symptoms

Fractures are associated with symptoms like:

  • Swelling or bruising over the bone
  • Deformity of a limb
  • Pain at the injured region, especially when moved or when pressure is applied.
  • Loss of motion of the injured area.
  • Bone protruding from skin in open fractures.
  • Muscle spasms, trying to hold the broken fragments together, followed by cramping.

Bone Fracture Diagnosis

The doctor performs a physical examination of the painful region and also might recommend the following diagnostic tests to confirm:

  • X-rays to get a clear image of the bones.
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to see the extent of the injury and damage to other tissues.
  • Computed Tomography (CT) scan is done to measure the alignment and study the complex bone deformities.
  • Bone Scan is done to diagnose and track bone diseases.

Bone Fracture Treatment

Bone healing is a natural process that happens on its own. Fractures are usually treated by a combination of the following treatment methods:

Pain Management
Administering medications like ibuprofen etc. is a way of managing pain.

Immobilization
The fractured bone is immobilized by aligning the bones using the following means, some of which requires surgery:

  • Plaster Casts
  • Metal plates and screws
  • Intra-medullary nails
  • External Fixators

Prevention
Bone fractures can be prevented to a great extent by following the following measures:

  • Healthy diet that includes calcium and Vitamin D.
  • Physical Activity, like weight-bearing exercises will help make the bones stronger and denser.
  • Avoid bad habits like smoking, alcohol consumption.

We have a senior Orthopaedic Surgeon on call for any sort of fractures that may arise.

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