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Upper and Lower GI Endoscopy

What is GI Endoscopy?

GI or Gastro-Intestinal Endoscopy is a minimally invasive diagnostic medical procedure that uses a thin flexible tube called endoscope to view the gastrointestinal tract and help in treating some medical conditions.

The GI Endoscopy is performed for the following uses:

  • Diagnostic Purposes:
    This would help in diagnosing different medical conditions like unexplained anemia, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, persistent dyspepsia, heartburn and persistent vomiting.
  • Surveillance Purposes:
    This would also help in surveillance or monitoring of medical conditions like Barrett’s esophagus or gastric and duodenal ulcers and also after a gastric surgery.
  • Confirmation of Diagnosis:
    This would also help in confirming the diagnosis of conditions like abnormal barium swallow or meal and also celiac disease.
  • Therapeutic Purposes:
    This has also proved effective for therapeutic purposes like injection therapy, esophageal varices, application of cautery to the tissues, removal of foreign bodies etc.

The GI endoscopy involves the doctors in using a thin and long flexible tube with a tiny light and camera at one end. This tube is then inserted through the mouth and throat and slowly moved down through the esophagus and then the stomach, the duodenum and then the intestines. The video of this movement of the endoscope can be viewed using a monitor.

The doctors will then insert small medical instruments into the endoscope for the following purposes:

Upper Gi Endoscopy in Kochi

  • Taking tissues samples for biopsies
  • Removal of stuck food particles
  • To inject air or fluid depending on the circumstance
  • In order to stop the bleeding
  • To perform medical procedures like endoscopic surgeries, laser therapy or even open up a narrowed area.

The patients might face the following:

  • The saliva formed will be suctioned off from time to time.
  • The mouth guard inserted along with the endoscope will prevent the patient from biting the tube and also protect the teeth.

Pre-Procedure Activities
The patient will be asked to perform the following:

  • Remove all jewellery and other articles that can hamper the endoscopy.
  • The patients will be provided gowns to wear after removing their clothes.
  • The patient will be administered sedative through intravenous line.
  • Vital signs of the patient, including the heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate and the oxygen level will be taken and checked.
  • The patients will be laid on the left side on the table with their head bent forward.
  • Numbing medicine is sprayed on the back of the patient’s neck to prevent the gagging sensation when the endoscope is inserted through the mouth.

What is Upper GI Endoscopy?

Upper GI Endoscopy is the medical procedure used to diagnose and treat medical issues that arise in the upper GI or gastrointestinal tract, which includes the esophagus or food pipe, stomach and the duodenum.

Some of the conditions that can be handled by an Upper GI Endoscopy are:

  • To find the reasons for symptoms like:
    • Trouble to swallow food, also called dysphagia.
    • Sudden weight loss with no particular reason.
    • Pain in the upper belly or chest, but not related to the heart.
    • Vomiting uncontrollably without reason.
    • Upper GI tract bleeding.
  • To detect and identify the different medical issues like:
    • Gastroesophageal reflux disease
    • Blockages
    • Inflammation and ulcers
    • Tumors both malignant and benign
    • Hernia
    • Damage caused by accidental swallowing of harmful chemicals like detergents
    • Celiac Disease
    • Crohn’s disease of the upper GI tract
    • Infections of the upper GI tract
  • To treat the following conditions:
    • Control bleeding
    • Remove tumors or growths
    • Dilate narrowed areas

What is Lower GI Endoscopy?

The Lower GI Endoscopy enables the doctors to view and treat medical issues that affect the lower GI tract that includes part of the small intestine, the colon and the rectum. The different procedures involved in Lower GI Endoscopy are:


This is a medical procedure that is used to examine the insides of the large intestine, the colon and the rectum for the causes for symptoms like abdominal pain, rectal bleeding or bowel movement changes. It is also used to detect colorectal cancer for patients usually above the age of 50.


This is a medical procedure that is used to examine the insides of the sigmoid colon to look for ulcers, abnormal cells, polyps and Cancer. The doctors will take samples of the tissues for determining the cause of the abnormalities of the cells.

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